10.03.2018…23:55.Egyptian Farmers Face Water Shortage Amid Ongoing Problems on the Nile Delta[09.04.2018.]海中的水必絕盡,河也消沒乾涸。 6 江河要變臭,埃及的河水都必減少枯乾,葦子和蘆荻都必衰殘。 7 靠尼羅河旁的草田,並沿尼羅河所種的田,都必枯乾,莊稼被風吹去,歸於無有。 8 打魚的必哀哭,在尼羅河一切釣魚的必悲傷,在水上撒網的必都衰弱。 9 用梳好的麻造物的,和織白布的,都必羞愧。 10 國柱必被打碎,所有傭工的心必愁煩。

Egyptian Farmers Face Water Shortage Amid Ongoing Problems on the Nile Delta [September 4, 2018.]

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-erdogan/turkey-will-strengthen-observation-posts-in-idlib-erdogan-says-idUSKCN1MC12D

https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2018/8/8/egyptian-politician-threatens-uprising-calls-for-referendum-on-sisi

https://www.dw.com/en/egypt-regime-fears-another-arab-spring/a-45224716

以賽亞書 19 Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)預示埃及之禍亂19 埃及的默示[0]看哪,耶和華乘駕快雲,臨到埃及埃及的偶像在他面前戰兢,埃及人的心在裡面消化。 「我必激動埃及人攻擊埃及人,弟兄攻擊弟兄,鄰舍攻擊鄰舍,這城攻擊那城,這國攻擊那國。 埃及人的心神必在裡面耗盡,我必敗壞他們的謀略,他們必求問偶像和念咒的、交鬼的、行巫術的。 我必將埃及人交在殘忍主的手中,強暴王必轄制他們。」這是主萬軍之耶和華說的。[0]海中的水必絕盡,河也消沒乾涸。 江河要變臭,埃及的河水都必減少枯乾,葦子和蘆荻都必衰殘。 尼羅河旁的草田,並沿尼羅河所種的田,都必枯乾,莊稼被風吹去,歸於無有。 打魚的必哀哭,在尼羅河一切釣魚的必悲傷,在水上撒網的必都衰弱。 用梳好的麻造物的,和織白布的,都必羞愧。 10 國柱必被打碎,所有傭工的心必愁煩牧伯謀士盡為愚蒙11 瑣安的首領極其愚昧,法老大有智慧的謀士所籌劃的成為愚謀。你們怎敢對法老說「我是智慧人的子孫,我是古王的後裔」? 12 你的智慧人在哪裡呢?萬軍之耶和華向埃及所定的旨意,他們可以知道,可以告訴你吧! 13 瑣安的首領都變為愚昧,挪弗的首領都受了迷惑,當埃及支派房角石的使埃及人走錯了路。 14 耶和華使乖謬的靈摻入埃及中間,首領使埃及一切所做的都有差錯,好像醉酒之人嘔吐的時候東倒西歪一樣。 15 埃及中,無論是頭與尾,棕枝與蘆葦,所做之工都不成就。[0]

[02.08.2018.] What fuel, bread and water reveal about how Egypt is mismanaged.[以賽亞書19:14-15]耶和華使乖謬的靈摻入埃及中間,首領使埃及一切所做的都有差錯,好像醉酒之人嘔吐的時候東倒西歪一樣。15埃及中,無論是頭與尾,棕枝與蘆葦,所做之工都不成就。

https://lucifer666ina.wordpress.com/2018/02/08/02-08-2018-what-fuel-bread-and-water-reveal-about-how-egypt-is-mismanaged-以賽亞書1914-15耶和華使乖謬的靈/

10.03.2018…23:55.Egyptian Farmers Face Water Shortage Amid Ongoing Problems on the Nile Delta[09.04.2018.]海中的水必絕盡,河也消沒乾涸。 6 江河要變臭,埃及的河水都必減少枯乾,葦子和蘆荻都必衰殘。 7 靠尼羅河旁的草田,並沿尼羅河所種的田,都必枯乾,莊稼被風吹去,歸於無有。 8 打魚的必哀哭,在尼羅河一切釣魚的必悲傷,在水上撒網的必都衰弱。 9 用梳好的麻造物的,和織白布的,都必羞愧。 10 國柱必被打碎,所有傭工的心必愁煩。

Dramatic water shortage hits Egyptian farmers amid the ongoing problems of the Nile Delta. Last May, the European Parliament released a report titled:” A stable Egypt for a stable region: Socio-economic challenges and prospects “about the challenges that are facing Egypt and their impact on the country’s socio-economic and political stability in the next two decades. Among the most critical challenges facing the North African country was the pressure on water resources that will have with disastrous effect on water and food crisis.

In this context, it seems that that water shortage and the problems of the Nile Delta started to hit Egyptian farmers. The Nile water supply is already struggling to sustain the growing Egyptian population, and issues such as water contamination and salinisation caused by rising sea levels are badly affecting farming in the Delta.

But the problems in the Nile Delta have been decades in the making. Rising sea levels in the Mediterranean have increased the salinity of underground water and the soil. Population growth has put more pressure on existing water resources, while the mass dumping of industrial waste in irrigation canals has polluted waterways.

Above all these problems, a situation is developing upstream in Ethiopia, which carries an existential threat to the Egyptian Nile’s fundamental place in the country’s economy. The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) situated on the Blue Nile, which is set to house the largest hydroelectric plant in Africa, is nearing completion. Once construction of the dam is finished, the reservoir it will contain will be filled over a three to five-year period, massively depleting the volume of water flowing into Egypt during that time.

Based on a new report on the deteriorating conditions on the Nile Delta, Abdel Aziz Haikal, an Egyptian farmer, described the situation by reaching down to grab a green shoot from a paddy field in Egypt’s northern Nile Delta at a time of year when the plant should be filled with rice grains. Instead, the farmer rubs the husk between his fingers and says,”Look how empty it is.”

Land in his village was traditionally fed by fresh water from the Nile river, which helped to make his province, Kafr al-Sheikh, one of the most fertile in the delta. But Nile water stopped reaching Mr. Haikal’s village of Abu Saieed five years ago and is becoming ever harder to replace.

For centuries, the banks of the Nile have been home to farms producing rice as well as cotton and wheat. But now water shortages, soil degradation, and pollution have created a crisis that has undermined agriculture in the delta, which is struggling to support millions of impoverished farmers.

Mr. Haikal and his neighbors find that they have no choice but to irrigate their fields with untreated agricultural drainage water polluted by nearby fish farms. They complain it is leading to smaller harvests.

Compounding their problems, the river has become a focus of regional tensions since Ethiopia began to construct a $4.8bn hydropower project on the Blue Nile, the source of most of the water reaching Egypt. Cairo fears that its already strained water resources will decline further when the dam has been completed.

The added factor of a dramatic drop in the amount of river water arriving in Egypt could be catastrophic. As well as leading to the ruin of huge swathes of farmland, it could result in a shortage of water for personal consumption affecting millions of Egyptians.

Ahmed Abdel Alti, Egypt’s irrigation minister, said recently that water scarcity was imposing limits on Egypt’s economic development. The impoverished farmers of the northern Delta have been the first to see the effect in the shape of declining productivity. ”

The Delta is already suffering a water crisis due to existing environmental problems,” said Mohamed Ghanem, a researcher at the government’s agricultural research institute. “The farmers are feeling it and the Ethiopian dam could make things worse.”

Egypt falls well below the internationally accepted definition of water poverty, which is set at 1,000 cubic meters or less per person a year. The country has less than 600 cubic meters per person. Khaled Abu Zeid, head of the Egyptian Water Partnership, a non-governmental organization, said the priorities were to conserve existing resources and find ways to treat wastewater so that it can be recycled for agriculture. ”

There is a problem and a challenge and a cost associated with it, he said. “The volume of wastewater produced will increase as the population rises. There should be bigger investments in recycling, and plans at the beginning of any new project to ensure that they reuse waste water.”

Egyptian officials have been trying to reach a deal with Addis Ababa to secure what Cairo considers its rightful share of the Nile water — an annual 55.5bn cubic meters, which was granted under an accord with Sudan in 1959. The problem is that Ethiopia does not recognize this agreement.

Negotiations continue. But analysts warn that even if Cairo secures the best possible outcome, the country’s water problems will remain. Egypt’s population of 96m is predicted to rise to about 150m by 2050, with no commensurate expansion in water resources.

Mr. Abdel Alti, the minister, has warned that if Egypt does not find ways to adapt to environmental change then “millions of people in the Nile Delta are vulnerable to being resettled, and billions of dollars of investments are at high risk”. In an effort to conserve resources, the government this year launched a crackdown against rice growing in areas where cultivation of the water-intensive crop was restricted.

It has stiffened fines and arrested offenders to ensure that only 750,000 acres of land are planted with rice — less than half the estimated acreage the previous year. The farmers in Abu Saieed grumble about the restrictions, insisting that the water-intensive nature of rice growing helps improve the quality of the land by washing out the salts in the soil.

Eissa Mohamed, a farmer, said, “I expect a lot of people to have to pay fines this year or even go to jail because they can’t pay.” Buffeted by forces they cannot control, the villagers’ view of the future is bleak. “I am pessimistic,” said Mr. Mohamed. “There are more than 3,000 acres in this area at risk of ruin.”

A new round of talks to address Egypt’s concerns over Ethiopia’s dam has been held in Cairo.

Egypt has renewed calls for Addis Ababa to move ahead with negotiations over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) amid growing fatigue on both sides over the issue.

The call came after Egypt’s foreign minister and intelligence chief visited Addis Ababa to deliver a verbal message to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed.

The visit August 28 was two days after Ahmed criticised an Ethiopian company for delays in completing parts for the GERD.

solar_superstorms_logo

Germany supports Egypt to solve water issues: German ambassador [Oct. 3, 2018.]

By: Walaa Ali

Wed, Oct. 3, 2018

CAIRO – 3 October 2018: As part of the German government’s support for Egypt, the German Ambassador to Cairo Georg Luy confirmed that the German government is seeking solutions to water issues in Egypt.

This came during his speech at a ceremony held late Tuesday at the embassy’s headquarters on Germany’s Unity Day in the presence of Minister of Irrigation Mohamed Abdel Ati, Minister of Finance Mohamed Ma’it and senior officials in the Egyptian government.

Luy added that Egypt is one of the 19 partner countries in the world with German government focus, pointing out that the German government funded water treatment projects and drainage plants in Egypt.

“Egyptian and German experts are working to improve the efficiency of water use system in agriculture through the rehabilitation of irrigation channels and the establishment of modern pumping and drainage systems, in addition to training farmers on modern farming methods to increase their crops,” Luy added.

He clarified that the German government contributed to the financing of the construction of the new Assiut barrage with €310 million.

“Egypt has been facing a water scarcity challenge in recent years and the population growth is alarming,” he highlighted. Luy referred that Egypt’s population is expected to reach 110 million by 2025 which will put further pressure on the water supply.

The diplomat added that Germany continues to work with the Egyptian government to implement the necessary reforms related to drainage, irrigation and water use and to establish a socially and economically appropriate tariff for water use.

During his meeting with an Egyptian journalist at his residency in May, Luy praised Egypt’s measures to achieve the desired economic growth rate of 7.5 percent, saying that President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi’s decisions to float the Egyptian pound and decrease the subsidies were very brave.

The German ambassador also praised Egypt’s efforts to eliminate the illegal immigration that has been reduced to the minimum since inking a deal between the two countries in 2017.

Luy denied that Germany will move its embassy to Jerusalem like the U.S. “Germany refuses the unilateral steps, because they don’t help in solving the conflict,” Luy explained.

Egypt’s Water Crisis and Degeneration of Nile [September 30, 2018.]

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pollution-nileEgypt is struggling to cope with water shortages and food production. It is expected that Egypt’s per capita annual water supply will drop from 600 cubic meters today to 500 cubic meters by 2025, which is the UN threshold for absolute water scarcity. Egypt has only 20 cubic meters per person of internal renewable freshwater resources, and as a result the country relies heavily on the Nile for its main source of water. Water scarcity has become so severe that it has been recorded that certain areas in the country could go days without water, with pressure sometimes returning only for a few hours a week. The country can no longer delay action and must act now.

Agriculture

Agriculture contributes roughly 15% of Egypt’s GDP, and employs 32% of Egypt’s workforce with rice being the biggest produce in the country. Rice is an important part of an Egyptian family’s diet. However, the cultivation of rice is very water intensive. On average about 3000 liters of water is used to produce 1 kilo of rice. This number can vary depending on climate, soil type and water management practices.

The government has restricted cultivation of rice to an area of 1 million acres (farmers were previously able to use most of the Nile Delta for cultivation) in specified areas of the Nile Delta. The government has even resorted to taking drastic measures as spreading incendiary compounds on rice fields cultivated outside the area allocated by the government. This has caused outrage and demonstrations by farmers who insist that the area allocated is not enough for them to be able to make ends meet. This type of tension caused by the lack of water was one of the catalysts of the Arab Spring in 2011/2012.

To alleviate population tension and unrest the government has been trying to increase water supply by exploring with reusing treated agricultural and municipal wastewater for agriculture. However implementation of such initiatives is not being applied fast enough to cope with the rising demand. Government must enforce new irrigation methods in the country (Egyptian farmers still rely heavily on flood and canal irrigation in the Nile Delta) as well as smart agricultural practices such as using less water intensive crops. Resorting less water intensive water crops could drastically cut water used in agriculture and help increase water supply.

Pollution of the Nile

The Nile has been a lifeline for Egypt at least since the time of the pharaohs. Yet, despite the world’s largest river’s importance to the country, its water is being polluted by various sources, and pollution levels increasing exponentially in recent years.

The degeneration of the Nile is an issue that is regularly underestimated in Egypt. With so many people relying on the Nile for drinking, agricultural, and municipal use, the quality of that water should be of most importance. The waters are mainly being polluted by municipal and industrial waste, with many recorded incidents of leakage of wastewater, the dumping of dead animal carcasses, and the release of chemical and hazardous industrial waste into the Nile River.

Industrial waste has led to the presence of metals (especially heavy metals) in the water which pose a significant risk not only on human health, but also on animal health and agricultural production. Fish die in large numbers from poisoning because of the high levels of ammonia and lead. Agricultural production quality and quantity has been affected by using untreated water for irrigation as the bacteria and the metals in the water affect the growth of the plant produce, especially in the Nile Delta where pollution is highest.

Industrial pollution is wrecking havoc in Nile

Of course the pollution of Nile is a complex problem that has been continuing for more than 30 years and the government is trying to implement stricter rules on the quality and type of waste/wastewater dumped into the river to reduce the pollution of the Nile. However, swift and decisive action must be taken towards cleaning the Nile, such as treating the wastewater prior to disposal, and placing stricter restrictions on industries to dispose of their waste safely and responsibly. This issue cannot be ignored any further as the continual increase in population will cause an increase in demand on Egypt’s dwindling water resources. Every drop of water counts.

The Blue Nile Dam

Another challenge at hand is tackling the issue of Ethiopia building a dam and hydroelectric plant upstream that may cut into Egypt’s share of the Nile. For some time a major concern for Egypt was Ethiopia’s construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in the Blue Nile watershed, which is a main source of water for the Nile River. Construction of the Renaissance Dam started in December 2010, and has the capacity to store 74 to 79 billion cubic meters of water and generate 6,000 megawatts of electricity for Ethiopia a year. This creates major concern for Egypt, who is worried that this damn would decrease the amount of water it receives (55.5 billion cubic meters) from the Nile River. Egypt is concerned that during dry months, not enough water will be released from the GERD thus decreasing the water received downstream. This will greatly hinder Egypt’s attempts to alleviate the water shortages during those months.

Earlier this year, Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan assigned two French companies to prepare a report on the impact of the dam on the three countries. This report will clarify the affects the Dam will have on downstream countries. The results of this report are yet to be released.

Conclusion

In case of business-as-usual scenario, Egypt runs the risk of becoming an absolute water scarce country in less than a decade. Therefore Egypt has a battle on its hands to ensure adequate conditions for its population. Like many other water scarce countries around the world, it needs to mitigate water scarcity by implementing smart conservation techniques, adopting water saving technologies, and control water pollution. With climate conditions expected to get drier and heat waves expected to become more frequent in the MENA region, Egypt cannot afford to neglect its water conservation policies and must act immediately to meet the population’s water demand.

Sources of Information

https://www.ecomena.org/egypt-water/

http://www.mfa.gov.eg/SiteCollectionDocuments/Egypt%20Water%20Resources%20Paper_2014.pdf

http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/nile/nile.pdf

http://planetearthherald.com/egypt-faces-water-crisis-the-end-of-the-nile-as-we-knew-it/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/04/egypt-water-crisis-intensifies-scarcity

http://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2016/04/30/Egypt-must-preserve-its-lifeline-by-tackling-the-water-crisis-now.html

http://bigstory.ap.org/article/476db2e5769344c48997d41eb319bf64/egypt-looks-avert-water-crisis-driven-demand-waste

http://www.presstv.com/Detail/2016/06/14/470358/Egypt-water-crisis-street-protests-Dakahlia-North-Sinai

http://phys.org/news/2016-04-egypt-avert-crisis-driven-demand.html

https://tcf.org/content/report/egyptian-national-security-told-nile/

http://ecesr.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/ECESR-Water-Polllution-En.pdf

http://www.aqua-waterfilter.com/index.php/en/articles/water-pollution/61-water-pollution-in-egypt.html

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/environmental-studies/water-pollution-in-egypt.php

http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ericeproduction/III.1_Water_usage_in_rice.htm

http://phys.org/news/2010-11-rice-production-withers-egypt.html

http:/http://www.salini-impregilo.com/en/projects/in-progress/dams-hydroelectric-plants-hydraulic-works/grand-ethiopian-renaissance-dam-project.html

http://www.juancole.com/2016/06/conflict-ethiopias-renaissance.html

Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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Water shortage deepens in West Asia and North Africa [August 17. 2018.]

Around 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world’s population, live in areas of physical scarcity of water, says UN

By DTE Staff

Last Updated: Monday 17 August 2015

Caption: Michael Coghlan/Flickr

Water crisis is looming large over many regions across the earth. Besides US’ California, much of West Asia and North Africa is also battling the problem which is set to worsen by the day.
“The situation is critical,” Essam Khalifa, a senior official from Egypt’s water ministry, said at the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. “We are using almost every drop of water due to population growth,” he was quoted as saying by news agency Reuters.

West Asian countries, including Iran, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq, are grappling with a drought-like situation after being hit by a dry winter in 2014. “Oman’s state-run water utility is ramping up water production from strategic well fields to help tide over an acute supply crisis that has left an estimated 15,000 residents of the capital city without piped water for several weeks,” reports Khaleej Times.

According to international non-profit The Water Project, much of the land that is available for producing food is destroyed by increasing desertification in Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Iran. Unsustainable agricultural practices, including overuse of water, are affecting already shrinking water resources.

World-wide problem

Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world’s population, live in areas of physical scarcity of water, and 500 million people are approaching this situation, says the United Nations. Another 1.6 billion people, or almost one quarter of the world’s population, face economic water shortage, it adds. Another report by the international agency adds that in the relatively dry areas in these two regions—Middle East and North Africa—non-sustainable use is exacerbated, with current rates of freshwater use equivalent to 115 per cent of total renewable runoff.

Two studies, released in 2014, had predicted that the world will face “insurmountable water crises”  by 2040 if it does not move away from water-intensive power production.
World Water Development Report 2015: water in a sustainable world

Global water demand projections: past, present and future

https3a2f2fblogs-images-forbes-com2ftrevornace2ffiles2f20162f122fswarm_to_study_earth_s_magnetic_field_node_full_image_25

Egypt’s parliament discuss important water resources draft law [September 17, 2018.]

Parliament member Hisham al-Hosary, deputy of the Committee on Agriculture and Irrigation, said that a draft law regarding water resources and irrigation will be one of the most important bills discussed during the next parliament session in early October.

The bill aims to maximize he utilization of available water resources by taking the necessary measures to achieve water security such as banning encroachments on the Nile River.

Hosary added that the the draft law also aims to preserve and invest in Egypt’s water. He told Youm7 that the most important feature of this law will be intensifying the penalties misusing water resources including imprisonment; an example would be wasting too much water while farming.

Rationing water consumption became a governmental approach; back in June prime Minister Sherif Ismail signed a new decree raising fees for drinking water and sanitation services by almost 50 percent, a second consecutive increase in less than a year.

Minister of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Mohamed Abdel Atty has stated that the country is suffering a water crisis, and said back in April that 114 billion cubic meters of water were required to cover the country’s agricultural and industrial needs, alongside drinking and home usages.

During the Supreme Council of Culture’s “Water and Sustainable Development” symposium, Atty stated that Egypt suffers from a shortage of water at 54 billion cubic meters after its renewable water sources coming from the Nile River, rain and underground water only reached 60 billion cubic meters.

Atty added that Egypt currently covers shortages of water through the reuse of agricultural drainage water reaching up to 20 billion cubic meters, accounting for 33 percent of the total renewable water. The country needs 34 billion cubic meters to produce food instead of importing them.

The minister also explained that Egypt faces numerous water challenges such as limited share of Nile River water, increasing demand for food and steadily increasing population which has recently grown to over 100 million people.

atmospheric-supersonic-plasma-jets-discovered5

National water, food, and trade modeling framework: The case of Egypt

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