Mon Feb 13, 2017 2:29
South Africa May Be Epicenter of A Geomagnetic Pole Reversal in Progress
TEHRAN (FNA)- The Earth’s magnetic field is so discombobulated over South Africa that some scientists believe we’re seeing the opening strains of a planet-wide polarity change.
彼得後書 3:10Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)
西番雅書 1Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)
猶大作惡主必嚴懲 The Great Day of the Lord.
2 耶和華說：「我必從地上除滅萬類。 3 我必除滅人和牲畜，與空中的鳥、海裡的魚，以及絆腳石和惡人。我必將人從地上剪除。」這是耶和華說的。 4 「我必伸手攻擊猶大和耶路撒冷的一切居民，也必從這地方剪除所剩下的巴力，並基瑪林的名和祭司， 5 與那些在房頂上敬拜天上萬象的，並那些敬拜耶和華指著他起誓，又指著瑪勒堪起誓的， 6 與那些轉去不跟從耶和華的，和不尋求耶和華也不訪問他的。」
7 你要在主耶和華面前靜默無聲，因為耶和華的日子快到。耶和華已經預備祭物，將他的客分別為聖。 8 「到了我耶和華獻祭的日子，必懲罰首領和王子，並一切穿外邦衣服的。 9 到那日，我必懲罰一切跳過門檻，將強暴和詭詐得來之物充滿主人房屋的。」 10 耶和華說：「當那日，從魚門必發出悲哀的聲音，從二城發出哀號的聲音，從山間發出大破裂的響聲。 11 瑪革提施的居民哪，你們要哀號！因為迦南的商民都滅亡了，凡搬運銀子的都被剪除。 12 那時，我必用燈巡查耶路撒冷，我必懲罰那些如酒在渣滓上澄清的，他們心裡說：『耶和華必不降福，也不降禍。』 13 他們的財寶必成為掠物，他們的房屋必變為荒場。他們必建造房屋卻不得住在其內，栽種葡萄園卻不得喝所出的酒。」
14 耶和華的大日臨近，臨近而且甚快。乃是耶和華日子的風聲，勇士必痛痛的哭號。 15 那日是憤怒的日子，是急難困苦的日子，是荒廢淒涼的日子，是黑暗、幽冥、密雲、烏黑的日子， 16 是吹角呐喊的日子，要攻擊堅固城和高大的城樓。17 「我必使災禍臨到人身上，使他們行走如同瞎眼的，因為得罪了我。他們的血必倒出如灰塵，他們的肉必拋棄如糞土。」 18 當耶和華發怒的日子，他們的金銀不能救他們。他的憤怒如火，必燒滅全地，毀滅這地的一切居民，而且大大毀滅。
耶利米書 25:15-38Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)
15 耶和華以色列的神對我如此說：「你從我手中接這杯憤怒的酒，使我所差遣你去的各國的民喝。 16 他們喝了就要東倒西歪，並要發狂，因我使刀劍臨到他們中間。」 17 我就從耶和華的手中接了這杯，給耶和華所差遣我去的各國的民喝， 18 就是耶路撒冷和猶大的城邑並耶路撒冷的君王與首領，使這城邑荒涼，令人驚駭、嗤笑、咒詛，正如今日一樣。 19 又有埃及王法老和他的臣僕、首領以及他的眾民，20 並雜族的人民和烏斯地的諸王，與非利士地的諸王，亞實基倫，加沙，以革倫，以及亞實突剩下的人， 21 以東，摩押，亞捫人， 22 推羅的諸王，西頓的諸王，海島的諸王， 23 底但，提瑪，布斯和一切剃周圍頭髮的， 24 阿拉伯的諸王，住曠野雜族人民的諸王， 25 心利的諸王，以攔的諸王，瑪代的諸王， 26 北方遠近的諸王以及天下地上的萬國喝了，以後示沙克[a]王也要喝。
27 「你要對他們說：『萬軍之耶和華以色列的神如此說：你們要喝，且要喝醉，要嘔吐，且要跌倒不得再起來，都因我使刀劍臨到你們中間。』 28 他們若不肯從你手接這杯喝，你就要對他們說：『萬軍之耶和華如此說：你們一定要喝！ 29 我既從稱為我名下的城起首施行災禍，你們能盡免刑罰嗎？你們必不能免，因為我要命刀劍臨到地上一切的居民。這是萬軍之耶和華說的。』
30 「所以你要向他們預言這一切的話，攻擊他們，說：『耶和華必從高天吼叫，從聖所發聲，向自己的羊群大聲吼叫。他要向地上一切的居民呐喊，像踹葡萄的一樣。 31 必有響聲達到地極，因為耶和華與列國相爭。凡有血氣的，他必審問；至於惡人，他必交給刀劍。這是耶和華說的。』」
32 萬軍之耶和華如此說：「看哪，必有災禍從這國發到那國，並有大暴風從地極颳起。」 33 到那日，從地這邊直到地那邊，都有耶和華所殺戮的。必無人哀哭，不得收殮，不得葬埋，必在地上成為糞土。 34 牧人哪，你們當哀號、呼喊！群眾的頭目啊，你們要滾在灰中！因為你們被殺戮分散的日子足足來到，你們要跌碎，好像美器打碎一樣。 35 牧人無路逃跑，群眾的頭目也無法逃脫。 36 聽啊，有牧人呼喊，有群眾頭目哀號的聲音，因為耶和華使他們的草場變為荒場。 37 耶和華發出猛烈的怒氣，平安的羊圈就都寂靜無聲。 38 他離了隱密處像獅子一樣，他們的地因刀劍凶猛的欺壓，又因他猛烈的怒氣，都成為可驚駭的。
以賽亞書 19Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)
看哪，耶和華乘駕快雲，臨到埃及。埃及的偶像在他面前戰兢，埃及人的心在裡面消化。 2 「我必激動埃及人攻擊埃及人，弟兄攻擊弟兄，鄰舍攻擊鄰舍，這城攻擊那城，這國攻擊那國。 3 埃及人的心神必在裡面耗盡，我必敗壞他們的謀略，他們必求問偶像和念咒的、交鬼的、行巫術的。 4 我必將埃及人交在殘忍主的手中，強暴王必轄制他們。」這是主萬軍之耶和華說的。
以賽亞書 24Chinese Union Version Modern Punctuation (Traditional) (CUVMPT)
24 看哪，耶和華使地空虛，變為荒涼；又翻轉大地，將居民分散。 2 那時百姓怎樣，祭司也怎樣；僕人怎樣，主人也怎樣；婢女怎樣，主母也怎樣；買物的怎樣，賣物的也怎樣；放債的怎樣，借債的也怎樣；取利的怎樣，出利的也怎樣。 3 地必全然空虛，盡都荒涼，因為這話是耶和華說的。 4 地上悲哀衰殘，世界敗落衰殘，地上居高位的人也敗落了。 5 地被其上的居民汙穢，因為他們犯了律法，廢了律例，背了永約。 6 所以地被咒詛吞滅，住在其上的顯為有罪；地上的居民被火焚燒，剩下的人稀少。 7 新酒悲哀，葡萄樹衰殘，心中歡樂的俱都嘆息。 8 擊鼓之樂止息，宴樂人的聲音完畢，彈琴之樂也止息了。 9 人必不得飲酒唱歌，喝濃酒的必以為苦。 10 荒涼的城拆毀了，各家關門閉戶，使人都不得進去。 11 在街上因酒有悲嘆的聲音，一切喜樂變為昏暗，地上的歡樂歸於無有。 12 城中只有荒涼，城門拆毀淨盡。 13 在地上的萬民中，必像打過的橄欖樹，又像已摘的葡萄所剩無幾。
我卻說：「我消滅了！我消滅了！我有禍了！詭詐的行詭詐，詭詐的大行詭詐。」17 地上的居民哪，恐懼、陷坑、網羅都臨近你。 18 躲避恐懼聲音的必墜入陷坑，從陷坑上來的必被網羅纏住，因為天上的窗戶都開了，地的根基也震動了。 19 地全然破壞，盡都崩裂，大大地震動了。 20 地要東倒西歪，好像醉酒的人；又搖來搖去，好像吊床。罪過在其上沉重，必然塌陷，不能復起。
What have scientists observed?
We already knew that the poles of the Earth’s magnetic field sometimes reverse, which is to say their direction flips from herding particles in to shooing them out, or vice versa. And the Earth’s magnetic field isn’t perfectly even, either. It’s sort of lumpy and thin in places. This is because the innards of our planet aren’t perfectly evenly distributed. There’s one particular region of the planet, toward the South Pole, where the liquid iron core meets with a hot, dense patch of the mantle. Studies of the planet’s magnetic field show that its poles are reversed over that patch.
Above it, that ferromagnetic weirdness results in an overlapping region of weirdness in the planet’s magnetic field called the South Atlantic Anomaly. The protective Van Allen belts there get really weird; they fade in intensity, and they dip way down close to the surface.
That region poses an annoying, but well understood problem for space travel and satellites. Hubble doesn’t take observations when it’s orbiting above the Anomaly. There’s a report that in 2012, SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft experienced magnetic interference from the Anomaly and had to reboot systems as a result. The Anomaly may even be responsible for how Hitomi spun itself apart.
Why is all this happening? What’s perturbing the magnetic field? The core is liquid, it’s moving inside the planet, and it changes the contours of the magnetosphere along with it. Earth’s magnetic field has been weakening sharply over the last 160 years, right over the South Atlantic Anomaly.
Evidence from fired clay from Bantu-speaking civilizations some 5,000 years ago tells us that the planet’s magnetic field was acting just like this, right there over South Africa, back then. Modeling tells us that this magnetic behavior preceded a planetary-scale flip in geomagnetic alignment that would have resulted in extreme electromagnetic strangeness on the surface. Basically, the Anomaly got big enough that it took over, and flipped the entire planet’s poles inside out.
What does a geomagnetic pole reversal mean for us?
This isn’t going to be one of those end-of-the-world articles. That said, if the poles do flip, we could be in for some electromagnetically interesting times. Magnetic fields deflect electrons, which would change how electricity behaves on a subtle level. The inconsistencies in the planet’s magnetosphere could kneecap satellite observations and act like a poltergeist in computerized systems.
“Such a major change would affect our navigation systems,” according to two geophysicists from the University of Rochester, “as well as the transmission of electricity. The spectacle of the northern lights might appear at different latitudes. And because more radiation would reach Earth’s surface under very low field strengths during a global reversal, it also might affect rates of cancer.”
Tin foil is electrically conductive, though, so make sure you keep your head well grounded. If you shape the foil right, it’ll act like a Faraday cage around your skull and keep the polarity switch from frying your brain.
A massive sinkhole has been spotted in the Northern Cape along the R31 between Daniëlskuil and Kuruman. Photo: Facebook.com/HendrikvanHunks Photography
https://www.facebook.com/plugins/video.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2FHendrikvanhunks%2Fvideos%2F1755698211416054%2F&show_text=0&width=560JOHANNESBURG – A massive sinkhole has been spotted in the Northern Cape along the R31 between Daniëlskuil and Kuruman.
The sinkhole is on what appears to be a farm and near the road.
The road between Kuruman and Danielskuil has been closed due to the sinkhole.
The ‘out of Africa’ theory that explains why the Earth’s magnetic poles may soon switch
- The Earth’s magnetic field protects life from harmful solar radiation
- Far from being constant, this field is continuously changing
- Geomagnetic reversals occur a few times every million years on average
- And when the field flips it also tends to become very weak
- The strength of Earth’s magnetic field has been decreasing for the last 160 years
- It’s happening in a patch centered in a huge expanse extending from Zimbabwe to Chile, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly
The Earth is blanketed by a magnetic field.
It’s what makes compasses point north, and protects our atmosphere from continual bombardment from space by charged particles such as protons.
Without a magnetic field, our atmosphere would slowly be stripped away by harmful radiation, and life would almost certainly not exist as it does today.
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The alteration in the magnetic field during a reversal will weaken its shielding effect, allowing heightened levels of radiation on and above the Earth’s surface
You might imagine the magnetic field is a timeless, constant aspect of life on Earth, and to some extent you would be right.
But Earth’s magnetic field actually does change.
Every so often – on the order of several hundred thousand years or so – the magnetic field has flipped.
North has pointed south, and vice versa.
And when the field flips it also tends to become very weak.
What currently has geophysicists like us abuzz is the realization that the strength of Earth’s magnetic field has been decreasing for the last 160 years at an alarming rate.
This collapse is centered in a huge expanse of the Southern Hemisphere, extending from Zimbabwe to Chile, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly.
The magnetic field strength is so weak there that it’s a hazard for satellites that orbit above the region – the field no longer protects them from radiation which interferes with satellite electronics.
At the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the moon, made mainly of iron. At 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the sun’s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid
And the field is continuing to grow weaker, potentially portending even more dramatic events, including a global reversal of the magnetic poles.
Such a major change would affect our navigation systems, as well as the transmission of electricity.
The spectacle of the northern lights might appear at different latitudes.
And because more radiation would reach Earth’s surface under very low field strengths during a global reversal, it also might affect rates of cancer.
WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF OUR MAGNETOSPHERE WEAKENS?
The magnetosphere protects the Earth from solar radiation, but it fluctuates.
If it weakens dramatically, radiation at ground level would increase with estimates suggesting that overall exposure to cosmic radiation would double causing more deaths from cancer.
The electric grid collapse from severe solar storms is a major risk.
As the magnetic field continues to weaken, scientists are highlighting the importance off-the grid energy systems using renewable energy sources to protect us from a black out.
The Earth’s climate could also change.
A recent Danish study has found that the earth’s weather has been significantly affected by the planet’s magnetic field.
They claimed that fluctuations in the number of cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere directly alter the amount of cloud covering the planet.
A weakened magnetosphere will also mean that more aurora will be seen on Earth as solar winds hit the atmosphere.
In terms of life on earth, we do know that many animal species have some form of magnetoreception that enables them to sense the Earth’s magnetic field.
They may use this to assist in long-distance navigation during migration.
But it is unclear what impact a reversal might have on such species.
We still don’t fully understand what the extent of these effects would be, adding urgency to our investigation.
We’re turning to some perhaps unexpected data sources, including 700-year-old African archaeological records, to puzzle it out.
Earth’s magnetic field is created by convecting iron in our planet’s liquid outer core.
From the wealth of observatory and satellite data that document the magnetic field of recent times, we can model what the field would look like if we had a compass immediately above the Earth’s swirling liquid iron core.
These analyses reveal an astounding feature: There’s a patch of reversed polarity beneath southern Africa at the core-mantle boundary where the liquid iron outer core meets the slightly stiffer part of the Earth’s interior.
In this area, the polarity of the field is opposite to the average global magnetic field.
If we were able to use a compass deep under southern Africa, we would see that in this unusual patch north actually points south.
This patch is the main culprit creating the South Atlantic Anomaly.
In numerical simulations, unusual patches similar to the one beneath southern Africa appear immediately prior to geomagnetic reversals.
The poles have reversed frequently over the history of the planet, but the last reversal is in the distant past, some 780,000 years ago.
The rapid decay of the recent magnetic field, and its pattern of decay, naturally raises the question of what was happening prior to the last 160 years.
In archaeomagnetic studies, geophysicists team with archaeologists to learn about the past magnetic field.
For example, clay used to make pottery contains small amounts of magnetic minerals, such as magnetite.
When the clay is heated to make a pot, its magnetic minerals lose any magnetism they may have held.
Upon cooling, the magnetic minerals record the direction and intensity of the magnetic field at that time.
The location of the South Atlantic Anomaly (pictured), an area extending from Zimbabwe to Chile where the Earth’s magnetic field is so weak that it’s a hazard for satellites that orbit above the region – the field no longer protects them from radiation which interferes with satellite electronics
If one can determine the age of the pot, or the archaeological site from which it came (using radiocarbon dating, for instance), then an archaeomagnetic history can be recovered.
Using this kind of data, we have a partial history of archaeomagnetism for the Northern Hemisphere.
In contrast, the Southern Hemisphere archaeomagnetic record is scant.
In particular, there have been virtually no data from southern Africa – and that’s the region, along with South America, that might provide the most insight into the history of the reversed core patch creating today’s South Atlantic Anomaly.
But the ancestors of today’s southern Africans, Bantu-speaking metallurgists and farmers who began to migrate into the region between 2,000 and 1,500 years ago, unintentionally left us some clues.
These Iron Age people lived in huts built of clay, and stored their grain in hardened clay bins.
As the first agriculturists of the Iron Age of southern Africa, they relied heavily on rainfall.
The communities often responded to times of drought with rituals of cleansing that involved burning mud granaries.
Clay used to make pottery contains small amounts of magnetic minerals, such as magnetite. When the clay is heated to make a pot, its magnetic minerals lose any magnetism they may have held. Upon cooling, the magnetic minerals record the direction and intensity of the magnetic field at that time. If one can determine the age of the pot, or the archaeological site from which it came (using radiocarbon dating, for instance), then an archaeomagnetic history can be recovered. The researchers teamed up with archaeologists to sample Iron Age village sites that dot the Limpopo River Valley, bordered today by Zimbabwe to the north, Botswana to the west and South Africa to the south
This somewhat tragic series of events for these people was ultimately a boon many hundreds of years later for archaeomagnetism.
Just as in the case of the firing and cooling of a pot, the clay in these structures recorded Earth’s magnetic field as they cooled.
Because the floors of these ancient huts and grain bins can sometimes be found intact, we can sample them to obtain a record of both the direction and strength of their contemporary magnetic field.
Each floor is a small magnetic observatory, with its compass frozen in time immediately after burning.
With our colleagues, we’ve focused our sampling on Iron Age village sites that dot the Limpopo River Valley, bordered today by Zimbabwe to the north, Botswana to the west and South Africa to the south.
Sampling at Limpopo River Valley locations has yielded the first archaeomagnetic history for southern Africa between A.D. 1000 and 1600.
What we found reveals a period in the past, near A.D. 1300, when the field in that area was decreasing as rapidly as it is today.
Then the intensity increased, albeit at a much slower rate.
The occurrence of two intervals of rapid field decay – one 700 years ago and one today – suggests a recurrent phenomenon.
Could the reversed flux patch presently under South Africa have happened regularly, further back in time than our records have shown?
Sampling at Limpopo River (pictured) Valley locations has yielded the first archaeomagnetic history for southern Africa between A.D. 1000 and 1600. What the researchers found reveals a period in the past, near A.D. 1300, when the field in that area was decreasing as rapidly as it is today. Then the intensity increased, albeit at a much slower rate. The occurrence of two intervals of rapid field decay – one 700 years ago and one today – suggests a recurrent phenomenon
If so, why would it occur again in this location?
Over the last decade, researchers have accumulated images from the analyses of earthquakes’ seismic waves.
As seismic shear waves move through the Earth’s layers, the speed with which they travel is an indication of the density of the layer.
Now we know that a large area of slow seismic shear waves characterizes the core mantle boundary beneath southern Africa.
This particular region underneath southern Africa has the somewhat wordy title of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province.
While many wince at the descriptive but jargon-rich name, it is a profound feature that must be tens of millions of years old.
While thousands of kilometers across, its boundaries are sharp.
Interestingly, the reversed core flux patch is nearly coincident with its eastern edge.
The fact that the present-day reversed core patch and the edge of the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province are physically so close got us thinking.
A weakened magnetosphere will also mean that more aurora lights will be seen on Earth as solar winds hit the atmosphere