11.04.2016.埃及,磁重聯,以賽亞書第19章

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Syria rebels renew Aleppo attack before Russia ceasefire

Egypt will send ground troops to Syria in support of the embattled President Bashar al-Assad, Iran’s independent Tasnim news agency reported on Thursday.

The two countries restored their diplomatic ties after Egypt’s previous leader, the Muslim Brotherhood-based Mohammed Morsi, was ousted in a military coup that saw army chief Abdel Fatah el-Sisi ascend to the post.

Earlier in the day Syrian rebels renewed their bid to break a government siege of eastern Aleppo, shelling regime-held parts of the city hours before a brief Russian-declared ceasefire was due to begin.

State media said at least 12 people had been killed in rebel rocket and gunfire on regime-controlled neighbourhoods, after an assault that began with a double car bomb attack.

Rebels have been battling for nearly a week in a desperate bid to break the three-month siege but have so far been unable to push through government lines in western Aleppo.

The opposition forces on Thursday announced a new phase in their assault on government forces in the city’s western outskirts.

“We have started the second phase in our fight to break the siege with heavy artillery fire" on several neighbourhoods, rebel fighter Abu Hamza told AFP on the edges of Aleppo.

Thick black smoke billowed out of the Dahiyet al-Assad district, where rebels had lit tyres to try to shield themselves from warplanes circling above.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said the “most intense fighting" was on the edges of Halab al-Jadida neighbourhood.

The clashes on Aleppo’s western outskirts could be heard in the city’s eastern districts, an AFP correspondent there said.

No aid has reached eastern Aleppo city’s more than 250,000 residents since early July, and there are reports of shortages and price hikes.

Civilians killed

The Observatory said government forces were carrying out air strikes in areas where clashes were underway, but that the rebel-held neighbourhoods in the east of the city were largely quiet.

The rebel offensive in Aleppo ( Thomas SAINT-CRICQ, Sabrina BLANCHARD (AFP) )

The rebel offensive in Aleppo ( Thomas SAINT-CRICQ, Sabrina BLANCHARD (AFP) )
“Thomas SAINT-CRICQ, Sabrina BLANCHARD (AFP)"

State news agency SANA said rebel fire on Thursday killed at least 12 people and wounded more than 200.

The Observatory put the toll at 15 dead, saying four children were among them, bringing to 69 the total number of civilians killed in rebel fire since Friday, including 23 children.

State media also said eight people were being treated for suffocation after “terrorists fired poisonous gases" at the village of Minyan west of Aleppo.

Once Syria’s economic powerhouse, Aleppo has been divided since mid-2012 between government control in the west and rebels in the east.

A Russian-backed army offensive in September to recapture the whole city killed hundreds of civilians and hit infrastructure including the east’s few remaining health facilities.

It provoked international recriminations, particularly against Russia, with the EU accusing it of actions that “may amount to war crimes".

Moscow has rejected the criticism and in late October declared a unilateral three-day ceasefire, during which it urged civilians and rebels to leave east Aleppo.

But only a handful did, with Russia accusing rebels of preventing people from leaving, and a UN plan to evacuate wounded people was shelved over security concerns.

SDF to ‘lead’ fight

Moscow said Wednesday it would implement a new, 10-hour “humanitarian pause" for Aleppo on Friday, prompting the UN to warn that “humanitarian operations cannot be contingent on political or military initiatives".

The pause was meant to “prevent senseless casualties", the chief of Russia’s General Staff Valery Gerasimov said.

Russia said the ceasefire would start at 9:00 am Moscow time (0600 GMT).

But the Syrian army said the pause would start at 9:00 am local time (0700 GMT).

More than 300,000 have been killed in Syria since the conflict began in 2011 with anti-government protests that spiralled into a multi-front war involving regime, rebels, Kurds and jihadists like IS.

The Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces alliance has been fighting to oust IS from areas across northern Syria with air support from the US-led coalition against the jihadist group.

The alliance, which includes the People’s Protection Units (YPG), said Thursday it would fight to recapture IS stronghold of Raqa in a battle that could start in coming weeks.

“We will see a campaign led by the Syrian Democratic Forces to liberate Raqa city," said SDF spokesman Talal Sello.

“We are ready. We have the sufficient numbers for this campaign and we will start it soon," he told AFP, without specifying a timetable.

But he insisted the fight would not include Turkey, which views the YPG as linked to the outlawed Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), considered by Ankara as a “terrorist" group.

“The topic of Turkey’s participation was settled with the (US-led anti-IS) coalition definitively. No Turkish participation," he said.

Ankara in August began a military operation inside northern Syria targeting both IS and Kurdish fighters.

(Staff with AFP)

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Egyptian soldiers arrive in Syria: reports

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Soldiers in military vehicles proceed towards the al-Jura district in El-Arish city from Sheikh Zuwaid, around 350 km (217 miles) northeast of Cairo May 21, 2013. Egyptian army and police forces stepped up roadblocks in north Sinai in a hunt for militant Islamists who kidnapped seven security officers last week, a security source said on Tuesday. REUTERS/Stringer (EGYPT – Tags: POLITICS MILITARY) – RTXZVMX

DAMASCUS, SYRIA (10:40 A.M.) – A group of officers from the Egyptian Army traveled to the Syrian port-city of Tartous on Tuesday to train with Russia’s military advisors near the Islamic State’s front-lines.

According to several reports from local activists, the Egyptian officers were accompanied by Russian military personnel upon their arrival to Tartous on Tuesday.

The Egyptian, Russian and Syrian militaries have not confirmed these reports; however, if true, it could be an important step towards reconciliation.

Recently, the Egyptian and Syrian governments began their diplomatic rapprochement after the Morsi regime cutoff ties with Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad in 2012.

 

ALSO READ  [Breaking] Putin orders 10 hour humanitarian pause in Aleppo on November 4th
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Egypt sends forces to help Assad, report claims

DAILY SABAH
ISTANBUL
Published

Egypt has sent military forces to Syria to support Bashar Assad’s forces and enhance military cooperation against terrorism in Syria, according to Iranian news agency Tasnim. The move came amid enhanced rapprochement between Russia and Egypt.

The report claimed that “Egypt became more inclined toward giving military support and sending forces to assist Assad regime, after the recent tensions with Saudi Arabia, which supports terrorists in Syria and Iraq, and the Saudi-led war on civilians in Yemen." Report also indicate that, in the near future, both Egyptian and Syrian regimes would be open to reveal this cooperation publicly. A source in the Syrian Foreign Ministry refused to comment to Tasnim about the military cooperation, saying that an official statement would be issued from his ministry if the reports are true. The head of the Syrian National Security Bureau, General Ali Al-mamluki, met senior Egyptian officials during his announced visit to Egypt two weeks ago. During the historic visit, the two parties had discussed enhancing military cooperation, the reports suggested.

Egypt has increased cooperation with Russia under Egypt’s Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, including a preliminary agreement to build a nuclear power plant. The country is also negotiating with Russia to restore flights to its Red Sea resorts, a year after the bombing of a Russian plane carrying holidaymakers back to St. Petersburg. Egypt also announced early in October that it will host Russian troops for war games along the Mediterranean coast, the latest step in the two countries’ rapprochement.

While moving closer to Russia, as one of the non-permanent Security Council members, Egypt voted in favor of Russian draft resolutions on Syria at the U.N. Security Council

As the Syrian war continues unabated over the last five years, Assad has been backed by the Russian air force, Iran’s Revolutionary Guards and an array of Shiite militias from Arab neighbors, while opposition groups seeking to oust him are backed by the Gulf monarchies, U.S.-led coalition and Turkey.

Russian President Vladimir Putin has offered a new humanitarian pause in Syria’s Aleppo, forcing opposition fighters to leave the eastern, besieged districts. The Syrian opposition dismissed Putin’s Aleppo initiatives saying that Russia’s humanitarian pause is a media stunt for “public consumption." Aleppo is the focal point of the six-year war in Syria. Assad has said he is determined to retake the country’s largest city and former commercial capital. The Assad forces have maintained a siege on the opposition-held eastern quarters since September. The Idlib province has borne the brunt of Russian and Assad regime airstrikes since the two air forces relaxed their bombardment of Aleppo two weeks ago.

Syria has been locked in a vicious civil war since early 2011, when the regime cracked down on pro-democracy protests erupting as part of the “Arab Spring" uprisings with unexpected ferocity. Since then, more than a quarter of a million people have been killed and more than 10 million displaced across the war-torn country, according to U.N. figures.

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Is Earth’s protective shield cracking? Bursts of deadly cosmic rays raises fears that our planet’s magnetic field is disappearing

  • Simulations indicate the Earth’s magnetic shield temporarily cracked

  • This was caused by magnetic reconnection of our magnetic field lines

  • This allowed lower energy galactic cosmic rays to enter our atmosphere

  • It could also be a sign our  magnetic shield is weakening, researchers said

  • This would cause widespread havoc on Earth including black outs and exposure to harmful UV radiation 

It protects you from harmful radiation, charged particles and meteorites and causes the spectacular Northern Lights.

But a new study has indicated there was a temporary ‘crack’ in the magnetic field, that allowed dangerous galactic cosmic ray particles into our atmosphere.

Scroll down for video 

A new study has indicated there was a temporary 'crack' in the magnetic field, that allowed dangerous galactic cosmic ray particles into our atmosphere. This was caused by the process of magnetic reconnection, which is visualised above

A new study has indicated there was a temporary ‘crack’ in the magnetic field, that allowed dangerous galactic cosmic ray particles into our atmosphere. This was caused by the process of magnetic reconnection, which is visualised above

The crack indicates that Earth’s magnetic shield is weakening.

MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

Magnetic reconnection occurs wherever charged gases, called plasma, are present.

It’s rare on Earth, but plasma makes up 99 per cent of the visible universe, fueling stars and filling the near-vacuum of space.

This plasma contains magnetic fields that affects the way charged particles it encounters move.

Under normal conditions, the magnetic field lines inside plasmas don’t break or merge with other field lines.

But sometimes, as field lines get close to each other, the entire pattern changes and everything realign into a new configuration.

As they come together, the field lines will cancel and re-form, each performing a sort of U-turn and curving to move off in a perpendicular direction.

Magnetic reconnection taps into the stored energy of the magnetic field, converting it into heat and kinetic energy that sends particles streaming out along the field lines.

The amount of energy released can be formidable.

If this continues, it could  cause widespread havoc on Earth including power black outs and exposure to harmful UV radiation

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, at TIFR’s Cosmic Ray Laboratory in Ooty, in India, recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays of about 20 GeV, on 22 June 2015, lasting for two hours.

‘The simultaneous occurrence of the burst in all nine directions suggests its origin close to Earth,’ the authors wrote in the study, published in Physical Review Letters.

‘It also indicates a transient weakening of Earth’s magnetic shield, and may hold clues for a better understanding of future superstorms that could cripple modern technological infrastructure on Earth, and endanger the lives of the astronauts in space.’

Numerical simulations indicate the Earth’s magnetic shield temporarily cracked due to the occurrence of magnetic reconnection.

Magnetic reconnection can occur anywhere there are powerful magnetic fields, such as in the sun’s magnetic environment.

As field lines get close to each other, the entire pattern changes and everything realign into a new configuration.

This allowed the lower energy galactic cosmic ray particles to enter our atmosphere.

The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona, struck our planet at a speed of about 1.55 million miles (2.5 million kilometres) per hour.

This caused a severe compression of Earth’s magnetosphere – the region around the planet which holds the magnetic field – from 11 to 4 times the radius of Earth.

Earth’s magnetosphere extends over a radius of a million kilometres, which acts as the first line of defence, shielding us from the continuous flow of solar and galactic cosmic rays and protecting life on our planet from these high intensity energetic radiation.

The magnetic field bent these particles about 180 degree, where they were detected as a burst by the GRAPES-3 muon telescope around mid-night on 22 June 2015.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, pictured, is the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor. In June last year it recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth's magnetic shield

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, pictured, is the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor. In June last year it recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth’s magnetic shield

Solar flares (pictured) and coronal mass ejections explode in the sun's atmosphere, the corona, sending light and high energy particles out into space, along with a stream of charged particles known as the solar wind. Solar wind is a plasma

Solar flares (pictured) and coronal mass ejections explode in the sun’s atmosphere, the corona, sending light and high energy particles out into space, along with a stream of charged particles known as the solar wind. Solar wind is a plasma

Views of the solar wind from NASA’s STEREO spacecraft (left) and after computer processing (right). Scientists used an algorithm to dim the appearance of bright stars and dust in images of the faint solar wind

There is a solar storm facing Earth at the moment, The severe geomagnetic storm has generated stunning displays of Northern Lights, like this one pictured on Skye, in Scotland, and radio signal blackouts in many high latitude countries 

There is a solar storm facing Earth at the moment, The severe geomagnetic storm has generated stunning displays of Northern Lights, like this one pictured on Skye, in Scotland, and radio signal blackouts in many high latitude countries

HOW THE SOLAR WIND IS FORMED

The sun and its atmosphere are made of plasma – a mix of positively and negatively charged particles which have separated at extremely high temperatures, that both carries and travels along magnetic field lines.

Material from the corona streams out into space, filling the solar system with the solar wind.

But scientists found that as the plasma travels further away from the sun, things change. The sun begins to lose magnetic control, forming the boundary that defines the outer corona – the very edge of the sun.

The breakup of the rays is similar to the way water shoots out from a squirt gun.

First, the water is a smooth and unified stream, but it eventually breaks up into droplets, then smaller drops and eventually a fine, misty spray.

The images in a Nasa study capture the plasma at the same stage where a stream of water gradually disintegrates into droplets.

If charged particles from solar winds hit Earth’s magnectic field, this can cause problems for satellite and communication equipment.

The data was analysed and interpreted through extensive simulation over several weeks by using the 1280-core computing farm that was built in-house by the GRAPES-3 team of physicists and engineers at the Cosmic Ray Laboratory in Ooty.

Solar storms can cause major disruption to human civilization by crippling large electrical power grids, global positioning systems (GPS), satellite operations and communications.

There is a solar storm facing Earth at the moment.

The severe geomagnetic storm has generated stunning displays of Northern Lights, and radio signal blackouts in many high latitude countries.

Geomagnetic storms are more disruptive now than in the past because of our greater dependence on technical systems that can be affected by electric currents.

The Earth’s magnetic field, so important to life on the planet, has weakened by 15 per cent over the last 200 years and this, scientists claim, could be a sign that the Earth’s poles are about to flip.

Experts believe we are currently overdue a flip, but they are unsure when this could occur.

If a switch happens, we would be exposed to solar winds capable of punching holes into the ozone layer.

The impact could be devastating for mankind, knocking out power grids, radically changing Earth’s climate and driving up rates of cancer.

‘This is serious business’, Richard Holme, Professor of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences at Liverpool University told MailOnline.

‘Imagine for a moment your electrical power supply was knocked out for a few months – very little works without electricity these days.’

NASA reveals stunning animation from the edge of the sun
HOW DOES A LIQUID IRON CORE CREATE A MAGNETIC FIELD?

Our planet’s magnetic field is believed to be generated deep down in the Earth’s core.

Nobody has ever journeyed to the centre of the Earth, but by studying shockwaves from earthquakes, physicists have been able to work out its likely structure.

At the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the moon, made mainly of iron.

At 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the Sun’s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid.

Surrounding this is the outer core there is a 1,242 mile (2,000 km) thick layer of iron, nickel, and small quantities of other metals. The metal here is fluid, because of the lower pressure than the inner core.

Differences in temperature, pressure and composition in the outer core cause convection currents in the molten metal as cool, dense matter sinks and warm matter rises.

The ‘Coriolis’ force, caused by the Earth’s spin, also causes swirling whirlpools.

This flow of liquid iron generates electric currents, which in turn create magnetic fields.

Charged metals passing through these fields go on to create electric currents of their own, and so the cycle continues. This self-sustaining loop is known as the geodynamo.

The spiralling caused by the Coriolis force means the separate magnetic fields are roughly aligned in the same direction, their combined effect adding up to produce one vast magnetic field engulfing the planet.

The Earth’s magnetic field explained

At the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the Moon, made mainly of iron. At 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the Sun¿s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid

At the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the moon, made mainly of iron. At 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the sun’s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid

SCIENTISTS DETECT CRACK IN EARTH’S MAGNETIC SHIELD

Scientists detect crack in Earth’s magnetic shield

A giant cloud of plasma moving at a speed of 2.5 million kilometres per hour struck Earth last year, causing a severe compression of its magnetosphere

The world’s largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor, located in India, has recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicates a crack in the Earth’s magnetic shield, according to scientists.

The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona struck Earth at a very high speed, causing massive compression of the Earth’s magnetosphere and triggering a severe geomagnetic storm.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope located at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research’s Cosmic Ray Laboratory in Ooty in Tamil Nadu recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays of about 20 GeV last year lasting for two hours.

The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona, and moving with a speed of about 2.5 million kilometres per hour, struck our planet, causing a severe compression of Earth’s magnetosphere from 11to 4 times the radius of Earth.

It triggered a severe geomagnetic storm that generated aurora borealis and radio signal blackouts in many high latitude countries, according to the study published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Earth’s magnetosphere extends over a radius of a million kilometres, which acts as the first line of defence, shielding us from the continuous flow of solar and galactic cosmic rays, thus protecting life on our planet from these high intensity energetic radiations.

Numerical simulations performed by the GRAPES-3 researchers, including Pravata K Mohanty, indicate that the Earth’s magnetic shield temporarily cracked due to the occurrence of magnetic reconnection, allowing the lower energy galactic cosmic ray particles to enter our atmosphere.

Earth’s magnetic field bent these particles about 180 degree, from the day-side to the nightside of the Earth where it was detected as a burst by the GRAPES-3 muon telescope around midnight on June 22, 2015.

The data was analysed and interpreted through extensive simulation over several weeks by using the 1280-core computing farm that was built in-house by the GRAPES-3 team of physicists and engineers at the Cosmic Ray Laboratory in Ooty.

Solar storms can cause major disruption to human civilisation by crippling large electrical power grids, global positioning systems (GPS), satellite operations and communications.

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Cosmic-ray detector finds possible crack in Earth’s magnetic shield

Published: Nov. 3, 2016 at 10:36 AM

Brooks Hays

MUMBAI, Nov. 3 (UPI) —MUMBAI, Nov. 3 (UPI) — The world’s largest, most sensitive cosmic-ray detector has identified a potential crack in Earth’s magnetic field.

The weakness was revealed by a burst of galactic cosmic rays, detected by GRAPES-3 during a severe geomagnetic storm in June 2015. The storm as triggered by a plasma cloud ejected from the sun’s corona.

It was one of the largest geomagnetic storms in recent history, generating an intense aurora borealis and thwarting radio communication systems among the most northern latitudes. The storm was strong enough to compress Earth’s magnetosphere for several hours.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope is a massive array situated in southern India, a joint effort among scientific institutes in Japan and India. Data revealing the cosmic ray breach were analyzed by scientists at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai.

Researchers published their analysis of the potential magnetosphere crack this week in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Life itself has Earth’s magnetosphere to thank. Its ability to block out the harmful rays and particles flying through space allowed life to flourish. But as the latest research suggests, it’s not a fail-safe shield.

High-intensity storms can reveal stress fractures, so to speak. Researchers suggest the 2015 storm triggered a phenomenon called magnetic reconnection, whereby magnetic energy is simultaneously converted into kinetic energy, thermal energy and particle acceleration.

In this instance, the process was powerful enough to open a crack through which a burst of cosmic rays slipped through.

Scientists hope their continued work with GRAPES-3 will offer an improved understanding of the stresses put on the magnetosphere by intense storms, to better predict vulnerabilities in the future.

© 2016 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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歐巴馬總統要求美國政府部門提出應對極端「太空天氣」的計畫

太陽風暴的影響是全球性的。我們的政府又做了什麼準備呢?

2016 年 10 月 17 日, 晚上 10:02
我們除了有地球上的極端氣候要煩惱之外,很多人不會注意到的是,還有「太空天氣」這種麻煩的東西懸在我們上頭。太陽雖然看起來像是一顆穩定的光球,但其實太陽的表面有著非常劇烈的活動,不僅是表面有時會突然噴發,形成閃焰,當扭曲的表面磁場不堪負荷而斷開時,原本被磁力線包圍的表面物質就會被猛烈地「甩」進太空,形成被稱為日冕物質拋射的現象。閃焰和日冕物質拋射都會將大量的帶電粒子和輻射線送向太空中的特定方位,以地球小小的目標來說,其實被這些太陽風暴直接命中的機會不是很大,通常最多就是被擦到邊,產生出特別壯闊的極光而已。

但不容易被命中,不表示就不會被命中,只是人類進入電力時代的歷史還太短,剛好還沒有碰到而已。但我們從歷史紀錄中得知,1859 年曾經發生過一次嚴重的太陽風暴,當時人類還在剛開始利用電力的階段,稱得上長程電力設備的只有電報線而已。太陽風暴產生的大量帶電粒子壓迫了地球磁場,並在電報線內產生了感應電流,這感應電流強大到毀壞了兩端的收發設備,甚至讓紙燒了起來。如果換到現代的話,「災情」恐怕就沒有這麼小,一次強力的太陽風暴不僅足以摧毀大量的變電設備,而且突波有可能進一步摧毀沒有防護的電子設備,癱瘓供水、交通、醫療等基礎設施。

問題是,太陽風暴來臨前雖然有預警時間,但就算是給比較多準備時間的日冕拋射也大約只有四天,高速的閃焰從發生到抵達地球甚至可能只要一天而已。這意味著無論想要避開潛在的風險,或是快速回復正常,都需要事先就有一套完善的應變措施才行。美國總統歐巴馬在卸任前下了指示,要求 NASA 與有關政府部門(能源、交通、商務、國土安全等)合作,研擬出一套在強烈太陽風暴來襲時,保障美國電網與基礎設施的方案。但太陽風暴只要一來到影響一定是全球性的,其實所有的國家都應該要做出相對應的計畫來才是。或許我們本地的政府可以看看美國的方案,做為制定應對策略的參考?

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